This paper and accompanying presentation were prepared for the 66th International Astronautical Congress, held in Jerusalem, Israel, October 12–16, 2015. In the last decade, CubeSats have rapidly increased in popularity as a platform for low-cost activity in space by industry, government, academia, and the military. This paper discusses the current supporting ecosystem for CubeSat development in the United States, from funding opportunities to ground-station services. It also discusses the opportunities and barriers facing the ecosystem as a whole, with a particular focus on the launch niche, which is a potential choke point for the entire ecosystem. NASA’s CubeSat Launch Initiative is examined as a case study to better understand the CubeSat launch hardware qualification and integration processes.