From December 2007 to April 2008, the Science and Technology Policy Institute (STPI) and Abt Associates Inc. developed and conducted a survey for the National Science Foundation (NSF) of current and former recipients of NSF grants to support creating and/or maintaining collections of objects used for research, and the researchers’ institutions. STPI, Abt, and NSF designed Web-based questionnaires to be completed by the NSF grantees and institutional administrators. Questionnaires allowed respondents to provide information on up to 18 categories of collections. For the purpose of the survey, objects are defined as any natural physical entities collected and maintained for research use by the grantee and/or other researchers. Of the 137 institutional administrators who were invited to participate in the survey, 57 (42%) completed their surveys. An additional 13 administrators (9%) submitted incomplete surveys that were considered usable. Of the 339 collection managers were invited to participate 222 (65%) completed their surveys while an additional 17 (5%) partially completed their surveys. STPI analyzed the data provided to assess the current status of the collections.